We previously modeled the in vivo evolution of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) under drug selective pressure from cross-sectional viral sequences. These fitness landscapes (FLs) were made by using first a Bayesian network (BN) to map epistatic substitutions, followed by scaling the fitness landscape based on an HIV evolution simulator trying to evolve the sequences from treatment naïve patients into sequences from patients failing treatment. In this study, we compared four FLs trained with different sequence populations. Epistatic interactions were learned from three different cross-sectional BNs, trained with sequence from patients experienced with indinavir (BNT), all protease inhibitors (PIs) (BNP) or all PI except indinavir (BND). Scaling the fitness landscape was done using cross-sectional data from drug naïve and indinavir experienced patients (Fcross using BNT) and using longitudinal sequences from patients failing indinavir (FlongT using BNT, FlongP using BNP, FlongD using BND). Evaluation to predict the failing sequence and therapy outcome was performed on independent sequences of patients on indinavir. Parameters included estimated fitness (LogF), the number of generations (GF) or mutations (MF) to reach the fitness threshold (average fitness when a major resistance mutation appeared), the number of generations (GR) or mutations (MR) to reach a major resistance mutation and compared to genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) from Rega and HIVdb algorithms. In pairwise FL comparisons we found significant correlation between fitness values for individual sequences, and this correlation improved after correcting for the subtype. Furthermore, FLs could predict the failing sequence under indinavir-containing combinations. At 12 and 48 weeks, all parameters from all FLs and indinavir GSS (both for Rega and HIVdb) were predictive of therapy outcome, except MR for FlongT and FlongP. The fitness landscapes have similar predictive power for treatment response under indinavir-containing regimen as standard rules-based algorithms, and additionally allow predicting genetic evolution under indinavir selective pressure.

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Keywords Antiretrovirals, Bioinformatics, Evolution, HIV-1 drug resistance, Treatment response
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2013.03.014, hdl.handle.net/1765/39789
Journal Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Grant This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/223131 - Collaborative HIV and Anti-HIV Drug Resistance Network (CHAIN)
Sangeda, R.Z, Theys, K, Beheydt, G, Rhee, S.Y, Deforche, K, Vercauteren, J, … Vandamme, A.M. (2013). HIV-1 fitness landscape models for indinavir treatment pressure using observed evolution in longitudinal sequence data are predictive for treatment failure. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 19, 349–360. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.03.014