Objective: Analyses of the effects of place of residence, socioeconomic status and ethnicity on perinatal mortality and morbidity in the Netherlands. Methods: Epidemiological analysis of all singleton deliveries > 22 gestational weeks (871,889 live born and 5927 stillborn) from the Dutch National Perinatal Registry 2002-2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether place of residence (deprived neighborhood, or not) contributed to the adverse perinatal outcome (defined as perinatal mortality, preterm birth, small for gestational age, congenital abnormalities or Apgar score <7, 5min after birth), additional to individual pregnancy characteristics, demographic characteristics, ethnic background and socioeconomic class. Results: Incidence of adverse perinatal outcome was 16.7%. After adjustment the excess risk for perinatal mortality in deprived districts was 21%, for preterm birth 16%, for small-for-gestational age 11%, and for Apgar score <7 after 5min 11%. Conclusions: Perinatal inequalities appear impressive in both urban and nonurban areas, with a significant additive risk of living in a deprived neighborhood. Excess risk for perinatal mortality generally outranges that for morbidity, suggesting both an etiological and prognostic pathway for neighborhood effects. A distinct pattern exists for congenital anomalies, for which first trimester adverse selection effects may be responsible.

Deprived neighborhood, ethnicity, perinatal inequalities, perinatal morbidity, perinatal mortality, place of residence, socioeconomic status
dx.doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2012.735722, hdl.handle.net/1765/40013
The Journal of Maternal - Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics

de Graaf, J.P, Ravelli, A.C, de Haan, M.A.M, Steegers, E.A.P, & Bonsel, G.J. (2013). Living in deprived urban districts increases perinatal health inequalities. The Journal of Maternal - Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(5), 473–481. doi:10.3109/14767058.2012.735722