Even though peer process feedback is an often used tool to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning environments like PBL, the conditions under which it is best facilitated still need to be investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of individual versus shared reflection and goal setting on students' individual contributions to the group and their academic achievement. In addition, the influence of prior knowledge on the effectiveness of peer feedback was studied. In this pretest-intervention-posttest study 242 first year students were divided into three conditions: condition 1 (individual reflection and goal setting), condition 2 (individual and shared reflection and goal setting), and condition 3 (control group). Results indicated that the quality of individual contributions to the tutorial group did not improve after receiving the peer feedback, nor did it differ between the three conditions. With regard to academic achievement, only males in conditions 1 and 2 showed better academic achievement compared with condition 3. However, there was no difference between both ways of reflection and goal setting with regard to achievement, indicating that both ways are equally effective. Nevertheless, it is still too early to conclude that peer feedback combined with reflection and goal setting is not effective in enhancing students' individual contributions. Students only had a limited number of opportunities to improve their contributions. Therefore, future research should investigate whether an increase in number of tutorial group meetings can enhance the effectiveness of peer feedback. In addition, the effect of quality of reflection and goal setting could be taken into consideration in future research.

Achievement, Goal setting, Higher education, Peer feedback, Problem-based learning, Reflection, Student functioning
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-013-9460-x, hdl.handle.net/1765/40055
ERIM Top-Core Articles
Advances in Health Sciences Education
Erasmus School of Economics

Kamp, R.J.A, Berkel, H.J.M, Popeijus, H.E, Leppink, J, Schmidt, H.G, & Dolmans, D.H.J.M. (2013). Midterm peer feedback in problem-based learning groups: the effect on individual contributions and achievement. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 1–17. doi:10.1007/s10459-013-9460-x