The length-tension diagrams of human oblique muscles in trochlear palsy and strabismus sursoadductorius
Documenta Ophthalmologica , Volume 70 - Issue 2-3 p. 227- 236
We determined the relation between length and tension in detached oblique muscles of 16 strabismus patients that underwent surgery, before and during contraction evoked by intravenous administration of succinylcholine. We frequently found a nonlinear relation between length and tension, unlike our previous findings in recti. In superior oblique palsies, the superior oblique was found, before injection of succinylcholine, to be stiff after elongation, and did not contract after injection of succinylcholine, while the ipsilateral inferior oblique contract after injection of succinylcholine, but with a higher spring constant than did usual. In 3 cases the superior oblique contracted vividly after administration of succinylcholine despite the presence of excyclotropia, stereopsis, torticollis (2 cases) and a hypertropia that increased in adduction, in downgaze, in adduction-and-downgaze and on ipsilateral head-tilt. The finding of a vividly contracting superior oblique is incompatible with the diagnosis of a complete superior oblique palsy. We conclude that some of the cases diagnosed as congenital superior oblique palsy, having a hypertropia increasing in adduction, in downgaze, in adduction-and-downgaze and on ipsilateral head-tilt, are in fact cases of unilateral strabismus sursoadductorius (upshoot in adduction), a non-paretic motility disorder.
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Simonsz, H.J, Kolling, G.H, & van Dijk, B. (1988). The length-tension diagrams of human oblique muscles in trochlear palsy and strabismus sursoadductorius . Documenta Ophthalmologica, 70(2-3), 227–236. doi:10.1007/BF00154459