Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior.

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Keywords adult, aged, article, blood sampling, commercial phenomena, human, male, priority journal, self employment, testosterone blood level
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Journal Physiology & Behavior
van der Loos, M.J.H.M, Haring, R, Rietveld, C.A, Baumeister, S.E, Groenen, P.J.F, Hofman, A, … Thurik, A.R. (2013). Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies. Physiology & Behavior, 119, 110–114. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.06.003