Part I of this article reviewed the results of studies investigating the effectiveness of antithrombotic, antiplatelet, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, calcium channel blocker and lipid-lowering drugs in preventing or reducing restenosis after angioplasty. However, despite 15 years of clinical experience and research in the field of restenosis prevention, this has not yet resulted in the revelation of unequivocal beneficial effects of any particular drug. Other newer approaches likely to receive more attention in the future include antibodies to growth factors, gene transfer therapy and antisense oligonucleotides. Whether there is a feasible monotherapy, whether we have to focus on a drug combination, or whether we are only searching for 'the Holy Grail' remain to be answered.

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Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam