Insulinomas represent the predominant syndromic subtype of endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs). Their metastatic potential cannot be predicted reliably using histopathological criteria. In the past few years, several attempts have been made to identify prognostic markers, among them TP53 mutations and immunostaining of p53 and recently cytokeratin 19 (CK19). In a previous study using conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) we have shown that chromosomal instability (CIN) is associated with metastatic disease in insulinomas. It was our aim to evaluate these potential parameters in a single study. For the determination of CIN, we applied CGH to microarrays because it allows a high-resolution detection of DNA copy number changes in comparison with conventional CGH as well as the analysis of chromosomal regions close to the centromeres and telomeres, and at 1pter→p32, 16p, 19 and 22. These regions are usually excluded from conventional CGH analysis, because they may show DNA gains in negative control hybridizations. Array CGH analysis of 30 insulinomas (15 tumors of benign, eight tumors of uncertain and seven tumors of malignant behavior) revealed that ≥20 chromosomal alterations and ≥6 telomeric losses were the best predictors of malignant progression. A subset of 22 insulinomas was further investigated for TP53 exon 5-8 gene mutations, and p53 and CK19 expression. Only one malignant tumor was shown to harbor an arginine 273 serine mutation and immunopositivity for p53. CK19 immunopositivity was detected in three malignant tumors and one tumor with uncertain behavior. In conclusion, our results indicate that CIN as well as telomeric loss are very powerful indicators for malignant progression in sporadic insulinomas. Our data do not support a critical role for p53 and CK19 as molecular parameters for this purpose. Copyright

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Journal Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Jonkers, Y.M.H, Claessen, S.M.H, Veltman, J.A, Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M, Dinjens, W.N.M, Skogseid, B, … Speel, E.J. (2006). Molecular parameters associated with insulinoma progression: Chromosomal instability versus p53 and CK19 status. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 115(3-4), 289–297. doi:10.1159/000095926