Sacral nerve neuromodulation may be an effective treatment option in patients with motor urge incontinence when conservative therapy fails. The effect of treatment is durable in the majority of patients, but there is also a high failure rate. The cause of failure remains unclear in most cases as it is still unknown exactly how neuromodulation works. The present review summarizes the results of patient treatment and research into the working mechanism of neuromodulation, as well as the technical developments described in the past year.

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Journal Current Opinion in Urology
Bosch, J.L.H.R, & Groen, J.M. (2001). Sacral nerve neuromodulation in the treatment of refractory motor urge incontinence. Current Opinion in Urology (Vol. 11, pp. 399–403). doi:10.1097/00042307-200107000-00011