Cerebral monitoring of patients with acute intracranial disorders generally focuses on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure monitoring. Over the past few years, several new techniques have become available for more detailed routine monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and metabolism. Brain tissue oxygen pressure measurement is increasingly being used for evaluation of cerebral oxygenation. This article discusses brain tissue oxygen pressure measurement in regards to its technical aspects, safety, reliability, and value relative to other techniques for evaluation of cerebral oxygenation. Published experimental and clinical data are considered, and the current status of the clinical use and indications of the technique are summarized. Monitoring may be performed in relatively undamaged parts of the brain or, preferably, in the penumbra region of an intracerebral lesion. Pathophysiologic evidence warrants targeting therapy for patients with traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage toward improvement of cerebral oxygenation guided by continuous monitoring of brain tissue oxygen tension.