We have applied Raman spectroscopy to discriminate between nontumor and tumor bladder tissue and to determine the biochemical differences therein. Tissue samples from 15 patients were collected, and frozen sections were made for Raman spectroscopy and histology. Twenty-five pseudocolor Raman maps were created in which each color represents a cluster of spectra measured on tissue areas of similar biochemical composition. For each cluster, the cluster-averaged spectrum (CAS) was calculated and classified as tumor and nontumor in accordance to pathohistology. Unguided hierarchical clustering was applied to display heterogeneity between and within groups of nontumor and tumor CAS. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed to discriminate between CAS from tumor and nontumor. The model was tested by a leave-one-patient-out validation, 84 of the 90 CAS (93%) were correctly classified with 94% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Biochemical differences between tumor and nontumor CAS areas were analyzed by fitting spectra of pure compounds to the CAS. Nontumor CAS showed higher collagen content while tumor CAS were characterized by higher lipid, nucleic acid, protein, and glycogen content. Raman spectroscopy enabled effective discrimination between tumor and nontumor bladder tissue based on characterized biochemical differences, despite heterogeneity expressed in both tumor and non-tumor CAS.

doi.org/10.1021/ac061417b, hdl.handle.net/1765/56091
Analytical Chemistry
Department of Pathology

de Jong, B., Bakker Schut, T., Maquelin, K., van der Kwast, T., Bangma, C., Kok, D., & Puppels, G. (2006). Discrimination between nontumor bladder tissue and tumor by Raman spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry, 78(22), 7761–7769. doi:10.1021/ac061417b