Background and Study Aims: Recurrent dysphagia frequently complicates the palliative treatment of esophageal cancer with self-expanding metal stents. Strategies for repeat interventions and subsequent outcomes have not been adequately reported to date. Patients and Methods: A total of 216 patients underwent placement of a self-expanding metal stent (Ultraflex, n = 75; Flamingo Wallstent, n = 71; Z-stent, n = 70) for malignant dysphagia, and were followed up prospectively. The causes of stent-related recurrent dysphagia, the intervals after first stent placement, and the procedures used for repeat intervention and their outcomes were evaluated. Results: Seventy-four episodes of stent-related recurrent dysphagia occurred in 63 patients (29%), mainly due to tumor overgrowth (n = 30; median 129 days), stent migration (n = 26; median 92 days) and food bolus obstruction (n = 16; median 80 days). Stent migration occurred more frequently (P = 0.05), whereas tumor overgrowth occurred less frequently (P = 0.05) with Ultraflex stents in comparison with Flamingo Wallstents and Z-stents. Tumor overgrowth was treated in 25 patients mainly by a second stent (n = 19) and was effective in 23 of the 25 patients (92%). Five patients received no further treatment. Stent migration was treated by placing a second stent (n = 14), repositioning the migrated stent (n = 7), other treatments (n = 3), or no further treatment (n = 2), and treatment was effective in 20 of 24 (83%) patients. Food bolus obstruction was treated by endoscopic stent clearance in all patients. Repeat intervention for stent-related recurrent dysphagia improved the dysphagia score from a median of 3 to 1 (P < 0.001). The median survival period after repeat treatment was 68 days. Conclusions: Recurrent dysphagia occurs in almost one-third of patients after stent placement. Repeat interventions for stent-related recurrent dysphagia are effective in over 90% of patients. New innovations in stent design are needed to reduce the risk of stent-related recurrent dysphagia.,
Department of Medical Oncology

Homs, M., Steyerberg, E., Kuipers, E., van der Gaast, A., Haringsma, J., van Blankenstein, M., & Siersema, P. (2004). Causes and treatment of recurrent dysphagia after self-expanding metal stent placement for palliation of esophageal carcinoma. Endoscopy, 36(10), 880–886. doi:10.1055/s-2004-825855