Androgen receptor (AR) modulation in human uteri and ovaries of long term androgen-treated transsexual female patients was investigated. Androgen receptor expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in the ovaries of 11 and the endometria and myometria of six androgen-treated transsexual female patients. This was compared with AR expression in the ovaries and uteri of premenopausal and postmenopausal women not receiving treatment and in 10 ovaries of female patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In the normal ovaries germinal epithelium, granulosa cells of antral follicles, corpus luteum, and thecal and stromal cells exhibited moderate AR expression. The more intense and uniform staining of ovarian stroma of female transsexual patients and those of patients with PCOD compared with ovarian stroma of normal controls was most remarkable. This similarity in histology and distribution of ARs supports the hypothesis that PCOD is an androgen-mediated disorder. Immunostaining for ARs was only occasionally detectable in the uteri of premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In contrast, myometrial and endometrial stroma of the uteri of female transsexual patients displayed an intense and diffuse nuclear immunostaining, but glandular epithelia remained unstained. Western blot analysis of the ovaries and uterine myometrial tissue samples from transsexual female patients confirmed the presence of the 110-kd AR molecule. Because the androgen treatment of some transsexual female patients was discontinued 6 weeks before they underwent hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy, our data indicate a stable and persistent androgen-induced up-regulation of AR expression in ovaries.,
Human Pathology
Department of Pathology

Chadha, D., Pache, T. D., Huikeshoven, F., Brinkmann, A., & van der Kwast, T. (1994). Androgen receptor expression in human ovarian and uterine tissue of long term androgen-treated transsexual women. Human Pathology, 25(11), 1198–1204. doi:10.1016/0046-8177(94)90037-X