BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) complicated by heart failure (HF) are at increased risk of death. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), beta-blockers, and early invasive risk stratification are recommended for these patients. AIM: The purpose of the current study was to assess adherence to treatment guidelines of patients with ACS complicated by HF in Europe and the Mediterranean region. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 10,484 patients who participated in Euro-Heart ACS survey, 9587 had known HF status and were without cardiogenic shock; 7058 (74%) did not have symptomatic HF and 2529 (26%) presented with or developed symptomatic HF during hospitalization. HF patients were older and had more cardiovascular risk factors. ACEI were more commonly used in HF patients (75% vs 56%, P < .01), whereas beta-blockers were less frequently used (75% vs 82%, P < .01). Coronary angiography and in hospital revascularization rates were lower among HF patients (42% vs 57% for coronary angiography, P < .01, and 32% vs 42% for revascularization, P < .01). Similar trends were noticed among patients with left ventricular dysfunction (symptomatic and asymptomatic).Adjusted in-hospital mortality risk was higher among patients with ACS complicated by symptomatic HF regardless of electrocardiographic type of ACS: (ST-elevation ACS, OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.9; non-ST-elevation ACS, OR 8.9,95% CI 4.5-17.7; undetermined-ECG ACS, OR 9.3, 95% CI 2.5-34). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ACS complicated by HF were at increased risk of dying. A relatively high percentage of HF patients were treated with ACEI and beta-blockers in accordance with current recommendations. Rates of coronary angiography and revascularization were significantly lower in ACS patients with HF versus those without HF, which potentially contributed to their worse mortality

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American Heart Journal
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Haim, M., Battler, A., Behar, S., Fioretti, P., Boyko, V., Simoons, M., & Hasdai, D. (2004). Acute coronary syndromes complicated by symptomatic and asymptomatic heart failure: does current treatment comply with guidelines?. American Heart Journal, 147(5), 859–864. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2003.11.014