The respiratory tract of human subjects is constantly exposed to harmful microbes and air pollutants. The immune system responds to these offenders to protect the host, but an unbalanced infl ammatory response itself may promote tissue damage and ultimately lead to acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Deregulated infl ammasome activation is emerging as a key modulator of respiratory infections and pathologic airway infl ammation in patients with asthma, COPD, and pulmonary fi brosis. Assembly of these intracellular danger sensors in cells of the respiratory mucosa and alveolar compartment triggers a proinfl ammatory cell death mode termed pyroptosis and leads to secretion of bioactive IL-1 β and IL-18. Here, we summarize and review the infl ammasome and its downstream effectors as therapeutic targets for the treatment of respiratory diseases.