Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that are mainly known for their potential to induce primary immune responses. In the lungs, DCs have been shown to induce Th2 sensitization to inhaled allergens. DCs also play a crucial role in controlling established inflammation, through their potential to attract and stimulate effector Th2 cells in the airways. Compounds capable of interfering with the T cell-dendritic cell interaction are on the horizon and could be employed for the future treatment of asthma. As DCs are similarly crucial for mounting antimicrobial T cell responses, any strategy that targets airway DCs carries the inherent risk that a state of immunosuppression is induced.