Objective: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in thyroid dysfunction and has been associated with adverse obstetric and foetal effects, leading to worldwide salt iodization programmes. As nowadays 69% of the world's population lives in iodine-sufficient regions, we investigated the effects of variation in iodine status on maternal and foetal thyroid (dys)function in an iodine-sufficient population. Design, Participants and Measurements: Urinary iodine, serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and TPO-antibody levels were determined in early pregnancy (13·3 (1·9) week; mean (SD)) in 1098 women from the population-based Generation R Study. Newborn cord serum TSH and FT4 levels were determined at birth. Results: The median urinary iodine level was 222·5 μg/l, indicating an iodine-sufficient population. 30·8% and 11·5% had urinary iodine levels <150 and >500 μg/l, respectively. When comparing mothers with urinary iodine levels <150 vs ≥150 μg/l, and >500 vs ≤500 μg/l, there were no differences in the risk of maternal increased or decreased TSH, hypothyroxinaemia or hyperthyroidism. Mothers with urinary iodine levels >500 μg/l had a higher risk of a newborn with decreased cord TSH levels (5·6 ± 1·4 (mean ± SE) vs 2·1 ± 0·5%, P = 0·04), as well as a higher risk of a hyperthyroid newborn (3·1 ± 0·9 vs 0·6 ± 0·3%, P = 0·02). These mothers had newborns with higher cord FT4 levels (21·7 ± 0·3 vs 21·0 ± 0·1 pm, P = 0·04). Maternal urinary iodine levels <150 μg/l were not associated with newborn thyroid dysfunction. Conclusions: In an iodine-sufficient population, higher maternal urinary iodine levels are associated with an increased risk of a hyperthyroid newborn.

doi.org/10.1111/cen.12321, hdl.handle.net/1765/57679
Clinical Endocrinology
Department of Immunology

Medici, M., Ghassabian, A., Visser, W., de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S., Jaddoe, V., Visser, E., … Peeters, R. (2013). Women with high early pregnancy urinary iodine levels have an increased risk of hyperthyroid newborns: The population-based Generation R Study. Clinical Endocrinology. doi:10.1111/cen.12321