BACKGROUND:: Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair cerebral aerobic metabolism in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia. METHODS:: Thirty male patients scheduled for coronary surgery were included in a prospective, controlled crossover trial. Measurements were performed under fentanyl-midazolam anesthesia in a randomized sequence aiming at partial pressures of carbon dioxide of 30 and 50 mmHg. Endpoints were CBF, blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery, and cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Global CBF was measured using a modified Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as inert gas tracer. CBF velocity of the middle cerebral artery was recorded by transcranial Doppler sonography. Data were presented as mean (SD). Two-sided paired t tests and one-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:: Moderate hyperventilation significantly decreased CBF by 60%, blood flow velocity by 41%, cerebral oxygen delivery by 58%, and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb by 45%. Cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen and glucose remained unchanged; however, net cerebral lactate efflux significantly increased from -0.38 (2.18) to -2.41(2.43) μmol min 100 g. CONCLUSIONS:: Moderate hyperventilation, when compared with moderate hypoventilation, in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing intravenous anesthesia increased net cerebral lactate efflux and markedly reduced CBF and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb, suggesting partial impairment of cerebral aerobic metabolism at clinically relevant levels of hypocapnia. Copyright,
Department of Anesthesiology

Grüne, F., Kazmaier, S., Sonntag, B., Stolker, R., & Weyland, A. (2014). Moderate hyperventilation during intravenous anesthesia increases net cerebral lactate efflux. Anesthesiology, 120(2), 335–342. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a8eb09