Male sexual differentiation and development proceed under direct control of androgens. Androgen action is mediated by the intracellular androgen receptor, which belongs to the superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. At least three pathological situations are associated with abnormal androgen receptor structure and function: androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and prostate cancer. In the X-linked androgen insensitivity syndrome, defects in the androgen receptor gene have prevented the normal development of both internal and external male structures in 46,XY individuals. Complete or gross deletions of the androgen receptor gene have not been found frequently in persons with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Point mutations at several different sites in exons 2–8 encoding the DNA- and androgen-binding domain, have been reported for partial and complete forms of androgen insensitivity. A relatively high number of mutations were reported in two different clusters in exon 5 and in exon 7. The number of mutations in exon 1 is extremely low and no mutations have been reported in the hinge region, located between the DNA-binding domain and the ligand-binding domain and which is encoded by the first half of exon 4. Androgen receptor gene mutations in prostate cancer are very rare and are reported only in exons 4–8. The X-linked spinal and bulbar muscle atrophy (SBMA; Kennedy's disease) is associated with an expanded length (> 40 residues) of one of the polyglutamine stretches in the N-terminal domain of the androgen receptor.,
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Department of Pathology

Brinkmann, A.O, Jenster, G.W, Ris-Stalpers, C, van der Korput, J.A.G.M, Brüggenwirth, H.T, Boehmer, A.L.M, & Trapman, J. (1995). Androgen receptor mutations. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 53(1-6), 443–448. doi:10.1016/0960-0760(95)00090-M