Study Type - Diagnosis (validating cohort) Level of Evidence 1b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) showed a reduction in prostate cancer mortality of 21% for PSA-based screening at a median follow-up of 11 years. In the ERSPC, men are screened at 4-year intervals. A prostate biopsy is recommended for men with a PSA level ≥3.0 ng/mL. The study shows that the positive predictive value (PPV) of a prostate biopsy indicated by PSA-based screening remains equal throughout consecutive screening rounds in men without a previous biopsy. In men who have previously had a benign biopsy, the PPV drops considerably, but 20% of the cancers detected still show aggressive characteristics. OBJECTIVE To assess the positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate biopsy, indicated by a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of ≥3.0 ng/mL, over time, in the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS In the Rotterdam section of the ERSPC, a total of 42 376 participants, aged 55-74 years, identified from population registries were randomly assigned to a screening or control arm. For the ERSPC men undergo PSA screening at 4-year intervals. A total of three screening rounds were evaluated; therefore, only men aged 55-69 years at the first screening were eligible for the present study. RESULTS PPVs for men without previous biopsy remained equal throughout the three subsequent screenings (25.5, 22.3 and 24.8% respectively). Conversely, PPVs for men with a previous negative biopsy dropped significantly (12.0 and 15.2% at the second and third screening, respectively). Additionally, in men with and without previous biopsy, the percentage of aggressive prostate cancers (clinical stage >T2b, Gleason score ≥7) decreased after the first round of screening from 44.4 to 23.8% in the second (P < 0.001) and 18.6% in the third round (P < 0.001). Repeat biopsies accounted for 24.6% of all biopsies, but yielded only 8.6% of all aggressive cancers. CONCLUSIONS In consecutive screening rounds the PPV of PSA-based screening remains equal in previously unbiopsied men. In men with a previous negative biopsy the PPV drops considerably, but 20% of cancers detected still show aggressive characteristics. Individualized screening algorithms should incorporate previous biopsy status in the decision to perform a repeat biopsy with the aim of further reducing unnecessary biopsies.

biopsy, positive predictive value, predictive value of tests, prostate-specific antigen, prostatic neoplasms, PSA, screening
dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11481.x, hdl.handle.net/1765/60947
BJU International
Department of Urology

Bokhorst, L.P, Zhu, X.D, Bul, M, Bangma, C.H, Schröder, F.H, & Roobol-Bouts, M.J. (2012). Positive predictive value of prostate biopsy indicated by prostate-specific-antigen-based prostate cancer screening: Trends over time in a European randomized trial. BJU International, 110(11), 1654–1660. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11481.x