In this study, we investigated whether semantic properties of a word's orthographic neighbors are activated during visual word recognition. In two experiments, words were presented with a property that was not true for the word itself. We manipulated whether the property was true for an orthographic neighbor of the word. Our results showed that rejection of the property was slower and less accurate when the property was true for a neighbor than when the property was not true for a neighbor. These findings indicate that semantic information is activated before orthographic processing is finished. The present results are problematic for the links model (Forster, 2006; Forster & Hector, 2002) that was recently proposed in order to bring form-first models of visual word recognition into line with previously reported findings (Forster & Hector, 2002; Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Wagenmakers, 2005; Rodd, 2004).,
Memory and Cognition
Department of Psychology

Pecher, D, de Rooij, J, & Zeelenberg, R. (2009). Does a pear growl? Interference from semantic properties of orthographic neighbors. Memory and Cognition, 37(5), 541–546. doi:10.3758/MC.37.5.541