Background: For the detection of respiratory pathogens, the sampling strategy may influence the diagnostic yield. Ideally, samples from the lower respiratory tract are collected, but they are difficult to obtain. Objectives: In this study, we compared the diagnostic yield in sputum and oropharyngeal samples (OPS) for the detection of respiratory pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with the objective to optimize our diagnostic testing algorithm. Methods: Matched sputum samples, OPS, blood cultures, serum, and urine samples were taken from patients (>18 years) with CAP and tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens using bacterial cultures, PCR for 17 viruses and five bacteria and urinary antigen testing. Results: When using only conventional methods, that is, blood cultures, sputum culture, urinary antigen tests, a pathogen was detected in 49·6% of patients (n = 57). Adding molecular detection assays increased the yield to 80%. A pathogen was detected in 77 of the 115 patients in OPS or sputum samples by PCR. The sensitivity of the OPS was lower than that of the sputum samples (57% versus 74%). In particular, bacterial pathogens were more often detected in sputum samples. The sensitivity of OPS for the detection of most viruses was higher than in sputum samples (72% versus 66%), except for human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Conclusion: Addition of PCR on both OPS and sputum samples significantly increased the diagnostic yield. For molecular detection of bacterial pathogens, a sputum sample is imperative, but for detection of most viral pathogens, an OPS is sufficient.

Community-acquired pneumonia, Oropharyngeal swabs, Real-time PCR, Respiratory virus, Sputum samples, Yield
dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12153, hdl.handle.net/1765/61717
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Huijskens, E, Rossen, J.W, Kluytmans, J.A.J.W, van der Zanden, A.G.M, & Koopmans, M.P.G, D.V.M. (2014). Evaluation of yield of currently available diagnostics by sample type to optimize detection of respiratory pathogens in patients with a community-acquired pneumonia. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 8(2), 243–249. doi:10.1111/irv.12153