The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in endotoxin-induced shock was investigated in pigs receiving 5 μg kg− of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) during 60 min of continuous infusion into the superior mesenteric artery. LPS concentration in aortic plasma, as determined by a chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test, reached a peak of approximately 1000 ng 1−1 during LPS infusion, and declined rapidly after discontinuation of the infusion. Serum TNF levels were determined by a bioassay using the L929 murine transformed fibroblast line. Eight of the 17 animals infused with LPS died within 30 min after beginning LPS administration, while the other 9 pigs survived beyond the experimental observation period of 3 h, although they were in a state of shock. No difference in LPS concentration was found between the survivors and the non-survivors. However, the serum TNF levels in non-survivors were significantly higher than in survivors when measured at 30 min after beginning LPS administration. In survivors, the peak increase in serum TNF levels was measured at 60 min after the beginning of LPS injection and returned rapidly to the baseline values. Although the role of TNF inducing rapid death seems to be dominant, the hemodynamic, hematology and blood chemistry disturbances seen during shock continued in survivors long after the return of TNF to baseline levels. These findings indicate that besides TNF other mediators are also involved in the LPS infusion-induced shock.

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doi.org/10.1016/0165-2478(91)90144-Y, hdl.handle.net/1765/61905
Immunology Letters
Department of Pharmacology

Mozes, T, Ben-Efraim, S, Tak, C.J.A.M, Heiligers, J.P, Saxena, P.R, & Bonta, I.L. (1991). Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor determine the fatal or non-fatal course of endotoxic shock. Immunology Letters, 27(2), 157–162. doi:10.1016/0165-2478(91)90144-Y