Aims: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are at increased risk. Estimation of individual risk is difficult. We developed a cardiovascular risk model based on the EUROPA study population and investigated whether benefit of long-term administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor perindopril was modified by risk level. Methods and results: A total of 12 218 patients with stable CAD were treated with 8 mg perindopril or placebo. Baseline patient characteristics were assessed for association with 1091 cardiovascular deaths or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Risk factors were age over 65 years, male gender [hazard ratio (HR) 1.2], previous MI (HR 1.5), previous stroke and/or peripheral vascular disease (HR 1.7), diabetes, smoking, angina (all HR 1.5), and high serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. Treatment benefit by perindopril was consistent among high, intermediate, and low risk patients (HRs 0.88, 0.68, and 0.83, respectively). Risk reduction was thus not modified by absolute risk level. Conclusion: Risk factors such as age, male gender, smoking, total cholesterol, and blood pressure continue to play an important role once clinical sequellae of coronary heart disease have developed. Patients at moderate-to-high risk because of uncontrolled risk factors and those with other indications for ACE-inhibitors have the most to gain from ACE-inhibition.

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Keywords ACE inhibitors, Coronary artery disease, Prognosis, Risk stratification
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Journal European Heart Journal
Deckers, J.W, Goedhart, D, Boersma, H, Briggs, A, Bertrand, M.E, Ferrari, R, … Simoons, M.L. (2006). Treatment benefit by perindopril in patients with stable coronary artery disease at different levels of risk. European Heart Journal, 27(7), 796–801. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehi809