Collaboration of the Dutch centers for kidney transplantation in children started in 1997 with a shared immunosuppressive protocol, aimed at improving graft survival by diminishing the incidence of acute rejections. This study compares the results of transplantations in these patients to those in a historical reference group. Ninety-six consecutive patients receiving a first kidney transplant were treated with an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine and corticosteroids. The results were compared with those of historic controls (first transplants between 1985 and 1995, n = 207), treated with different combinations of corticosteroids, cyclosporine A and/or azathioprine. Cytomegajovirus (CMV) prophylaxis was prescribed to high-risk patients in the study group, and only a small proportion of the reference group. The graft survival at 1 yr improved significantly: 92% in the study group, vs. 73% in the reference group (p < 0.001). In the study group 63% of patients remained rejection-free during the first year; in the reference group 28% (p < 0.001). After statistical adjustment of differences in baseline data, as cold ischemia time, the proportion of LRD, preemptive transplantation, and young donors, the difference between study and reference group in graft survival (RR 0.33, p = 0.003) and incidence of acute rejection (RR 0.37, p < 0.001), as the only factor, remained statistically significant, indicating the effect of the immunosuppressive therapy. In the first year one case of malignancy occurred in each group. CMV disease occurred less frequently in the study group (11%) than in the reference group (26%, p = 0.02). As a new complication in 4 patients bronchiectasis was diagnosed. A new consensus protocol, including the introduction of mycophenolate mofetil, considerably improved the outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation in the Netherlands, measured as reduction of the incidence of acute rejection and improved graft survival.

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Pediatric Transplantation
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Cransberg, K., Cornelissen, E., Davin, J. C., van Hoeck, K., Lilien, M., Stijnen, T., & Nauta, J. (2005). Improved outcome of pediatric kidney transplantations in the Netherlands - Effect of the introduction of mycophenolate mofetil?. Pediatric Transplantation, 9(1), 104–111. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3046.2005.00271.x