The role of Mycoplasma hominis as a causative agent for neonatal sepsis and meningitis is still unclear. Meningitis secondary to M. hominis is well-described in the literature; however, M. hominis can also be isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from infants without signs of meningitis. We present a case of a full-term infant with meningo-encephalitis with seizures, epileptic activity on the EEG, inflammation of brain tissue on a CT scan, and cloudy CSF containing elevated cell counts, decreased glucose levels and elevated protein levels. M. hominis was identified from the CSF by culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the only possible causative agent. Furthermore, while empiric antibiotic and antiviral treatment for neonatal sepsis had failed, the meningo-encephalitis promptly responded upon antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg per day i.v.), to which M. hominis is susceptible. Conclusion: A meningo-encephalitis developed due to infection with M. hominis in a full-term infant, from which he recovered rapidly after start of treatment with ciprofloxacin.

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European Journal of Pediatrics
Department of Virology

Wolthers, K.C, Kornelisse, R.F, Platenkamp, G.J.J.M, Schuurman-Van Der Lem, M.I, van der Schee, C, Hartwig, N.G, & Verduin, C.M. (2003). A case of Mycoplasma hominis meningo-encephalitis in a full-term infant: Rapid recovery after start of treatment with ciprofloxacin. European Journal of Pediatrics, 162(7-8), 514–516. doi:10.1007/s00431-003-1219-6