Fragile X syndrome, the most frequent form of hereditary mental retardation, is due to a mutation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. Like fragile X patients, FMR1-knockout (FMR1-KO) mice lack the normal fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and show both cognitive alterations and an immature neuronal morphology. We reared FMR1-KO mice in a C57BL/6 background in enriched environmental conditions to examine the possibility that experience-dependent stimulation alleviates their behavioral and neuronal abnormalities. FMR1-KO mice kept in standard cages were hyperactive, displayed an altered pattern of open field exploration, and did not show habituation. Quantitative morphological analyses revealed a reduction in basal dendrite length and branching together with more immature-appearing spines along apical dendrites of layer five pyramidal neurons in the visual cortex. Enrichment largely rescued these behavioral and neuronal abnormalities while increasing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) levels in both genotypes. Enrichment did not, however, affect FMRP levels in the WT mice. These data suggest that FMRP-independent pathways activating glutamatergic signaling are preserved in FMR1-KO mice and that they can be elicited by environmental stimulation.

AMPA receptor, Dendritic spines, FMR1 gene, Fragile X mental retardation protein, Mental retardation
dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504984102, hdl.handle.net/1765/63167
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Department of Clinical Genetics

Restivo, L, Ferrari, F, Passino, E, Sgobio, C, de Bock, G.H, Oostra, B.A, … Ammassari-Teule, M. (2005). Enriched environment promotes behavioral and morphological recovery in a mouse model for the fragile X syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(32), 11557–11562. doi:10.1073/pnas.0504984102