Accumulation of nanoparticles in solid tumors depends on their extravasation. However, vascular permeability is very heterogeneous within a tumor and among different tumor types, hampering efficient delivery. Local hyperthermia at a tumor can improve nanoparticle delivery by increasing tumor vasculature permeability, perfusion and interstitial fluid flow. The aim of this study is to investigate hyperthermia conditions required to improve tumor vasculature permeability, subsequent liposome extravasation and interstitial penetration in 4 tumor models. Tumors are implanted in dorsal skin flap window chambers and observed for liposome (∼ 85 nm) accumulation by intravital confocal microscopy. Local hyperthermia at 41 C for 30 min initiates liposome extravasation through permeable tumor vasculature in all 4 tumor models. A further increase in nanoparticle extravasation occurs while continuing heating to 1 h, which is a clinically relevant duration. After hyperthermia, the tumor vasculature remains permeable for 8 h. We visualize gaps in the endothelial lining of up to 10 μm induced by HT. Liposomes extravasate through these gaps and penetrate into the interstitial space to at least 27.5 μm in radius from the vessel walls. Whole body optical imaging confirms HT induced extravasation while liposome extravasation was absent at normothermia. In conclusion, a thermal dose of 41 C for 1 h is effective to induce long-lasting permeable tumor vasculature for liposome extravasation and interstitial penetration. These findings hold promise for improved intratumoral drug delivery upon application of local mild hyperthermia prior to administration of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems.

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Keywords Hyperpermeable tumorvasculature, Intravital confocal microscopy, Liposome extravasation, Mild hyperthermia, Nanoparticle drug delivery, Whole body optical imaging
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Journal Journal of Controlled Release
Li, L, ten Hagen, T.L.M, Bolkestein, M, Gasselhuber, A, Yatvin, J, van Rhoon, G.C, … Koning, G.A. (2013). Improved intratumoral nanoparticle extravasation and penetration by mild hyperthermia. Journal of Controlled Release, 167(2), 130–137. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.01.026