Background Sustained high compliance with hand hygiene (HH) is needed to reduce nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBSIs). However, over time, a wash out effect often occurs. We studied the long-term effect of sequential HH-promoting interventions. Methods An observational study with an interrupted time series analysis of the occurrence of NBSI was performed in very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants. Interventions consisted of an education program, gain-framed screen saver messages, and an infection prevention week with an introduction on consistent glove use. Results A total of 1,964 VLBW infants admitted between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011, were studied. The proportion of infants with 1 NBSI decreased from 47.6%-21.2% (P <.01); the number of NBSIs per 1,000 patient days decreased from 16.8-8.9 (P <.01). Preintervention, the number of NBSIs per 1,000 patient days significantly increased by 0.74 per quartile (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.22). The first intervention was followed by a significantly declining trend in NBSIs of -1.27 per quartile (95% CI, -2.04 to -0.49). The next interventions were followed by a neutral trend change. The relative contributions of coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus as causative pathogens decreased significantly over time. Conclusions Sequential HH promotion seems to contribute to a sustained low NBSI rate.

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American Journal of Infection Control
Department of Pediatrics

Helder, K, MScN, Brug, J, van Goudoever, J.B, Looman, C.W.N, Reiss, I.K.M, & Kornelisse, R.F. (2014). Sequential hand hygiene promotion contributes to a reduced nosocomial bloodstream infection rate among very low-birth weight infants: An interrupted time series over a 10-year period. American Journal of Infection Control, 42(7), 718–722. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2014.04.005