Whereas product-oriented worked examples only present a problem solution, process-oriented worked examples additionally explain the rationale behind the presented solution. Given the importance of understanding this rationale for attaining transfer, process-oriented worked examples would be expected to result in more efficient transfer. However, a previous study in the domain of electrical circuits troubleshooting suggested an expertise-reversal effect: Process information might initially impose an effective cognitive load and lead to higher efficiency but may become redundant and impose an ineffective load when training progresses, which hampers efficiency. The present study confirmed this hypothesis. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications for the design of optimal training sequences for complex cognitive tasks.

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doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.03.003, hdl.handle.net/1765/63666
Learning and Instruction
Department of Psychology

van Gog, T.A.J.M, Paas, G.W.C, & van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (2008). Effects of studying sequences of process-oriented and product-oriented worked examples on troubleshooting transfer efficiency. Learning and Instruction, 18(3), 211–222. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.03.003