Objectives: A non-invasive method to measure the bladder pressure in males using a condom catheter has been developed. The measurement technique, its validation and limitations, a diagnostic nomogram to non-invasively diagnose bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), and results of large-scale application are discussed. Methods: Modified incontinence condoms are attached to the penis. During voiding the flow of urine is mechanically interrupted. The subsequent maximum pressure in the condom reflects the isovolumetric bladder pressure. The method was validated in a group of 46 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms who were simultaneously studied invasively and non-invasively. Subsequently it was applied in a non-invasive epidemiological study in 1020 healthy males. Results: The reproducibility of the measured isovolumetric bladder pressure is comparable to that of conventional pressure-flow parameters. The measured pressure can be used to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction with a diagnostic accuracy (Area Under receiver operator characteristic curve) of 0.98, which compares most favorably with the area under the curve of 0.79 of Qmax in the same population. During condom catheter measurements, both the involuntary interruption of voiding and the forced diuresis increase post-void residual volume. This increase does not affect the accuracy of the pressure measurements. Conclusions: We conclude that in males bladder pressure can successfully be measured non-invasively using the condom catheter method. By combining the measured volumetric bladder pressure with a separately measured free flow rate, BOO can non-invasively and accurately be diagnosed.

Urodynamics
dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-1591.45546, hdl.handle.net/1765/64265
Indian Journal of Urology
Department of Urology

van Mastrigt, R, Pel, J.J.M, Huang Foen Chung, J.W.N.C, & de Zeeuw, P.A. (2009). Development and application of the condom catheter method for non-invasive measurement of bladder pressure. In Indian Journal of Urology (Vol. 25, pp. 99–104). doi:10.4103/0970-1591.45546