Background Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Objective To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility of DXA and the accuracy of DXA outcome in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. Materials and methods Based on literature and expert opinion, a list of disrupting factors was developed. Occurrence of these factors was assessed in 27 children who underwent DXA measurement. Results Disrupting factors that occurred most frequently were movement during measurement (82%), aberrant body composition (67%), small length for age (56%) and scoliosis (37%). The number of disrupting factors per child was mean 5.3 (range 1-8). No correlation was found between DXA outcomes and the number of disrupting factors. Conclusion Factors that may negatively influence the accuracy of DXA outcome are frequently present in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. No systematic deviation of DXA outcome in coherence with the amount of disrupting factors was found, but physicians should be aware of the possible influence of disrupting factors on the accuracy of DXA.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Children, Disrupting factors, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Severe neurological impairment
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-011-2307-9, hdl.handle.net/1765/64355
Journal Pediatric Radiology: roentgenology, nuclear medicine, ultrasonics, CT, MRI
Citation
Mergler, S, Rieken, R, Tibboel, D, Evenhuis, H.M, van Rijn, R.R, & Penning, C. (2012). Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: A pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors. Pediatric Radiology: roentgenology, nuclear medicine, ultrasonics, CT, MRI, 42(5), 574–583. doi:10.1007/s00247-011-2307-9