The effects of waterbolus dimensions and configuration on the effective field size (EFS) of the Lucite cone applicator (LCA) for superficial hyperthermia are presented. The goal of the research is to develop guidelines which mark out a sub-set of optimal LCA-waterbolus set-ups. The effects of variations in (i) waterbolus thickness, (ii) waterbolus area, (iii) waterbolus length/width ratio and (iv) eccentric placement of the applicator have been investigated in an FDTD model study. The prominent effects are verified with IR thermography measurements. An optimal EFS value of 80 cm2 is found for waterbolus area of 200-400 cm2. A small (10 ×10 cm2) waterbolus area restricts the EFS to 25% of the optimal value. The sensitivity to sub-optimal waterbolus area and length/width ratio increases with waterbolus height. Eccentric placement of the LCA near the waterbolus edge reduces the EFS to up to 50% of the optimal value. The IR measurements confirm the model findings. Based on the results, the following guidelines for the clinical application of the LCA have been defined: The waterbolus (i) should extend the LCA aperture at least 2.5 cm, especially at the Lucite windows, and (ii) the height should not exceed 2 cm.

FDTD, Lucite cone applicator, SAR, Superficial hyperthermia, Waterbolus,
International Journal of Hyperthermia
Department of Radiation Oncology

de Bruijne, M, Samaras, T, Bakker, J, & van Rhoon, G.C. (2006). Effects of waterbolus size, shape and configuration on the SAR distribution pattern of the Lucite cone applicator. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 22(1), 15–28. doi:10.1080/02656730500384297