Purpose: To assess the therapeutic gain (at the TCD50 level) that can be obtained by boosting thermoradiotherapy with intravenous glucose infusion at different temperatures. This completes our series of studies to determine the optimal conditions and the effectiveness of glucose administration at clinically achievable glucose levels and treatment temperatures. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous rat rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112 was irradiated with graded single doses of 300-kV X-rays (dose range 0-60 Gy). Fifteen minutes after irradiation, a 100-min intravenous infusion was started, consisting of either glucose (20% solution, 2.4-3 g/kg/h) or saline as a control. Then heat was applied to the tumors at 42°C or 43°C (water bath) during a subsequent 100-min period of infusion. Tumor control was scored as the absence of palpable growth at 100 days after treatment. Results: Glucose infusion enhanced tumor control independent of temperature in the range 42-43°C. At 42°C, the TCD50 for X-irradiation decreased by 5.9 Gy (SEM 1.8 Gy), from 41.6 (1.6) to 35.7 (1.5) Gy, and at 43°C from 33.3 (1.6) to 27.3 (1.5) Gy, representing a glucose enhancement ratio of approximately 1.2. At doses corresponding to the TCD50 at either 42 or 43°C, the addition of glucose increased tumor control from 50% to 70%. An enhancement ratio of 2.1 was found for the combination of irradiation, glucose infusion, and heating at 43°C, with respect to irradiation alone (TCD50 56.3 Gy, reanalyzed earlier data). The contribution of combined heat and glucose to tumor control represented an additive effect, probably on the hypoxic cell population. Conclusion: Moderate glucose administration (blood concentration 300 mg/100 mL) sizably improves experimental tumor control after combined X-irradiation and hyperthermia under clinically feasible conditions. Clinical treatment should benefit from this additional modality, in particular if unsatisfactory local control rates are due to insufficient heating. The therapeutic gain has to be evaluated further in clinical studies. Copyright

Glucose, Hyperthermia, Radiation, Thermoradiotherapy, Tumor pH
dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-3016(01)01499-7, hdl.handle.net/1765/65162
International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics
Department of Radiation Oncology

van den Berg, A.P, van den Berg-Blok, A.E, Kal, H.B, & Reinhold, H.S. (2001). A moderate elevation of blood glucose level increases the effectiveness of thermoradiotherapy in a rat tumor model. II. Improved tumor control at clinically achievable temperatures. International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics, 50(3), 793–801. doi:10.1016/S0360-3016(01)01499-7