Background: Light fractionation with a 2-h dark interval increases the efficacy of topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT). Hexyl-aminolevulinate (HAL) is the hexyl ester of ALA. Both HAL and ALA lead to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in endothelial cells and to vascular effects, which are important for light fractionation. We investigated light fractionation for HAL-PDT in a mouse skin model and compared this with ALA. Methods: Three illumination schemes were studied: (a) 100Jcm-2 in a single illumination; (b) 50+50Jcm-2 in a twofold illumination; (c) a small first light fraction until 50% of PpIX was photobleached (ca. 3Jcm-2), followed by 97Jcm-2 2h later. PpIX fluorescence was measured continuously during illumination. Efficacy was evaluated by daily visual skin damage scoring up to 7 days after PDT. Results: Light fractionation showed a trend towards increased efficacy for HAL-PDT. Both the initial PpIX synthesis and the PpIX resynthesis during the dark interval were higher for ALA, but these were not correlated with efficacy. Single HAL-PDT was more effective than single ALA-PDT. Photobleaching rates of HAL and ALA were similar indicating similar biodistributions at depth. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence to support that light fractionation may be beneficial for HAL-PDT. We are cautious because we found only a non-significant increase in response. However, combining our results with literature data suggest that the illumination scheme may be further optimized for HAL-PDT to potentially enhance the effect of light fractionation.

Additional Metadata
Keywords ALA, HAL, Light fractionation, Mouse skin, PDT
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2013.09.002, hdl.handle.net/1765/65567
Journal Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Citation
Middelburg, T.A, de Bruijn, H.S, van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A, Neumann, H.A.M, & Robinson, D.J. (2013). The effect of light fractionation with a 2-h dark interval on the efficacy of topical hexyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy in normal mouse skin. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, 10(4), 703–709. doi:10.1016/j.pdpdt.2013.09.002