Background/Aims: Characteristics of the intrahepatic virus-specific T-cell response in patients with acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have not been studied due to the risk of complications associated with standard liver biopsies. In this study we aimed to characterize the virus-specific CD8 + T-cell response in the liver of patients with acute HBV infection using fine-needle aspiration-biopsy (FNAB). Methods: In HLA-A2 positive patients with acute HBV infection a FNAB was performed at first presentation, at the time of HBsAg-seroconversion and 3 months after HBsAg-seroconversion. HLA-A2 tetramers were used to identify HBV-specific CD8 + T-cells in FNAB-cytology and peripheral blood (PB). Results: At first presentation there was a correlation between the frequency of intrahepatic CD8 + T-cells and the degree of liver damage. At all time points there was sequestering of HBV-specific CD8 + T-cells in the liver, and the percentage of intrahepatic HLA-DR expressing HBV-specific CD8 + T-cells was higher than in PB. Three months after HBsAg-seroconversion the frequency of intrahepatic HBV-specific CD8 + T-cells remained high. Conclusions: HBV-specific CD8 + T-cells are compartmentalized in the liver during acute HBV infection. Their presence in the liver may suggest a role in the resolution of the infection. Intrahepatic HBV-specific CD8 + T cells remain detectable at high frequencies after HBsAg-seroconversion.

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Keywords Acute HBV infection, Fine-needle aspiration biopsy, HBV-specific T cells, Intrahepatic immune response, Liver
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Journal Journal of Hepatology
Sprengers, D, van der Molen, R.G, Kusters, J.G, de Man, R.A, Niesters, H.G.M, Schalm, S.W, & Janssen, H.L.A. (2006). Analysis of intrahepatic HBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells during and after acute HBV infection in humans. Journal of Hepatology, 45(2), 182–189. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2005.12.022