Objective: To investigate the stability throughout the day of the protein to creatinine ratio (PCR) in spot urine, to demonstrate whether the PCR is a valid alternative for 24-hour protein investigation in pregnant women. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Tertiary referral university centre. Population: Women suspected of having pre-eclampsia, admitted to the Erasmus Medical Centre. Methods: Twenty-four-hour urine collections and simultaneously three single voided 5-ml aliquots were obtained at 8 a.m., 12 a.m. (noon) and 5 p.m. A PCR was measured in each specimen and compared with the 24-hour protein excretion. Main outcome measures: The 24-hour proteinuria and PCR measured in spontaneous voids. Results: The PCRs correlated strongly with each other and with the 24-hour protein excretion but did show variation throughout the day (mean coefficient of variation 36%; 95% confidence interval 31-40%). The coefficient of variation was unrelated to the degree of 24-hour proteinuria. Receiver operating characteristics curves to discriminate between values below and greater than or equal to the threshold of 0.3 g protein per 24-hour had an area under the curve of respectively 0.94 (8 a.m.), 0.96 (noon) and 0.97 (5 p.m.). Sensitivities at 8 a.m., noon and 5 p.m. were respectively 89%, 96% and 94%; specificities were 75%, 78% and 78% with the proposed PCR cut-off of 30 mg/mmol (0.26 g/g) (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines).There is no evidence of a difference between the three measurement times regarding the sensitivities and specificities. Conclusion: The PCR determined in spot urine varies throughout the day but is a valid alternative for 24-hour urine collections in pregnant women. It is especially useful to rapidly identify clinically relevant proteinuria.

24-hour urine collection, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Protein to creatinine ratio, Proteinuria
dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12803, hdl.handle.net/1765/65745
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Department of Internal Medicine

Verdonk, K, Niemeijer, I, Hop, W.C.J, de Rijke, Y.B, Steegers, E.A.P, van den Meiracker, A.H, & Visser, W. (2014). Variation of urinary protein to creatinine ratio during the day in women with suspected pre-eclampsia. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.12803