Background: Prematurity and the associated risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remain a significant threat to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Vitamin A has been considered a therapeutic alternative in reducing the rate of BPD and mortality. Objectives: To investigate whether early postnatal, additional high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation for 28 days is more efficient in reducing BPD or death in ELBW infants than placebo treatment. Methods: This is a multicenter, double-blind RCT comparing postnatal high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation (5,000 IU vitamin A/kg/day vs. placebo) for 28 days in ELBW neonates requiring mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilatory support or supplemental oxygen at 24 h of age. The primary end point is the proportion of children who died before 36 weeks' gestational age or developed moderate or severe BPD. BPD is defined as the need for supplemental oxygen to maintain SaO2 of ≥92% at rest at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). Clinical secondary end points include the following: BPD (including mild form), intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, total number of days of mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation, and safety and tolerability of high-dose vitamin A supplementation. Results and Conclusions: The results of the NeoVitaA trial will provide robust data with regard to the efficacy of high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation in reducing the incidence of BPD or death at 36 weeks' PMA in ELBW infants.

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Neonatology: fetal and neonatal research
Department of Internal Medicine

Meyer, S., Gortner, L., Biesalski, H., Orlikowsky, T., Heimann, H., Wieg, C., … Wahl, H. (2014). Early postnatal additional high-dose oral vitamin a supplementation versus placebo for 28 days for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death in extremely low birth weight infants. Neonatology: fetal and neonatal research (Vol. 105, pp. 182–188). doi:10.1159/000357212