In order to implement the EU Electricity Directive (96/92), The Netherlands completely opened its electricity market last 1 July 2004. From then on, small consumers became free to select the supplier of their choice. The question this article examines is whether a licensing system best reflects the special nature of the electricity industry, given the institutional transformation it has undergone and is still undergoing. The authors argue that a seal-of-approval system would reflect it better. Copyright

Electricity, EU Directive 96/92, Licensing system, Market forces, Seal of approval,
International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management
Department of Public Administration

ten Heuvelhof, E.F, & Stout, H.D. (2005). Consumer protection: A licensing or seal-of-approval system? the case of Dutch small consumers of electricity. International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management (Vol. 5, pp. 215–226). doi:10.1504/IJTPM.2005.008404