Disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport are most clearly expressed in urine. Nevertheless the interpretation of abnormalities in urinary amino acid excretion remains difficult. An increase or decrease of almost every amino acid in urine can be due to various etiology. To differentiate between primary and secondary aminoacido-pathies systematic laboratory investigation is necessary. Early diagnosis of disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport is very important, because most of them can be treated, leading to the prevention of (further) clinical abnormalities. In those disorders, which cannot be treated, early diagnosis in an index-patient may prevent the birth of other siblings by means of genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. Primary aminoacidopathies can be due to genetically determined transport disorders and enzyme deficiencies in amino acid metabolism or degradation. Secondary aminoacidopathies are the result of abnormal or deficient nutrition, intestinal dysfunction, organ pathology or other metabolic diseases like organic acidurias. A survey of amino acid metabolism and transport abnormalities will be given, illustrated with metabolic pathways and characteristic abnormal amino acid chromatograms.

doi.org/10.1007/BF00806075, hdl.handle.net/1765/65987
Amino Acids
Department of Clinical Genetics

Blom, W.A.M, & Huijmans, J.G.M. (1992). Differential diagnosis of (inherited) amino acid metabolism or transport disorders. Amino Acids, 2(1-2), 25–67. doi:10.1007/BF00806075