In the domain of electrical circuits troubleshooting, a full factorial experiment investigated the hypotheses that (a) studying worked examples would lead to better transfer performance than solving conventional problems, with less investment of time and mental effort during training and test, and (b) adding process information to worked examples would increase investment of effort during training and enhance transfer performance; whereas adding it to conventional problems would increase investment of effort, but would not positively affect transfer performance. The first hypothesis was largely confirmed by the data; the second was not: adding process information indeed resulted in increased investment of effort during training, but not in higher transfer performance in combination with worked examples.

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Keywords Cognitive load, Problem solving, Troubleshooting, Worked examples
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Journal Learning and Instruction
van Gog, T.A.J.M, Paas, G.W.C, & van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (2006). Effects of process-oriented worked examples on troubleshooting transfer performance. Learning and Instruction, 16(2 SPEC. ISS.), 154–164. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.02.003