This paper uses the Five-Factor Model of personality structure as an organizing framework to explore the effects of personality on earnings. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American high school graduates, we find that extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience are rewarded/penalized significantly and differentially across genders. Antagonistic, emotionally stable and open men enjoy substantial earnings advantages over otherwise similar individuals. In case of women, the labor market appears to value conscientiousness and openness to experience. The positive returns to openness are very similar across genders, suggesting that being creative, unconventional and artistic is equally important for men and women working in all types of occupations. Moreover, we find significant gender differences in personality characteristics. Decomposition of personality-based earnings differentials into trait and parameter effects suggests that gender-atypical traits reduce the earnings advantage that individuals would otherwise enjoy under their own-sex wage structure. Overall, we find that the impact of personality on earnings is significant but not large --not trivial either-- and comparable to the impact of differences in cognitive ability.

gender wage gap, personality and wages
Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination (jel J16), Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc. (jel J31)
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper Series
Tinbergen Institute

Mueller, G, & Plug, E.J.S. (2004). Estimating the Effect of Personality on Male-Female Earnings (No. TI 04-087/3). Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper Series. Retrieved from