The ventromedial medulla (VM), subdivided in a rostral (RVM) and a caudal (CVM) part, has a powerful influence on the spinal cord. In this study, we have identified the distribution of glycine and GABA containing neurons in the VM with projections to the cervical spinal cord, the lumbar dorsal horn, and the lumbar ventral horn. For this purpose, we have combined retrograde tracing using fluorescent microspheres with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) and GAD67 mRNAs to identify glycinergic and/or GABAergic (Gly/GABA) neurons. Since the results obtained with FISH for GlyT2, GAD67, or GlyT2+GAD67 mRNAs were not significantly different, we concluded that glycine and GABA coexisted in the various projection neurons. After injections in the cervical cord, we found that 29%±1 (SEM) of the retrogradely labeled neurons in the VM were Gly/GABA (RVM: 43%; CVM: 21%). After lumbar dorsal horn injections 31%±3 of the VM neurons were Gly/GABA (RVM: 45%; CVM: 12%), and after lumbar ventral horn injections 25%±2 were Gly/GABA (RVM: 35%; CVM: 17%). In addition, we have identified a novel ascending Gly/GABA pathway originating from neurons in the area around the central canal (CC) throughout the spinal cord and projecting to the RVM, emphasizing the interaction between the ventromedial medulla and the spinal cord. The present study has now firmly established that GABA and glycine are present in many VM neurons that project to the spinal cord. These neurons strongly influence spinal processing, most notably the inhibition of nociceptive transmission.,
Department of Neuroscience

Hossaini, S.M, Goos, J.A.C, Kohli, S.K, & Holstege, J.C. (2012). Distribution of glycine/GABA neurons in the ventromedial medulla with descending spinal projections and evidence for an ascending glycine/GABA projection. PLoS ONE, 7(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035293