Objective: Existing productivity questionnaires do not capture sufficient information to enable the proper valuation of an individual's productivity loss to a society. The purpose of this article is to develop a questionnaire that captures the time lost from work due to a health problem and job and workplace characteristics so that the value of productivity loss to society can be calculated. Methods: First, a questionnaire battery was developed by selecting items from existing productivity questionnaires. Next, items with similar content were identified and duplications were eliminated. Third, the draft questionnaire's feasibility was pretested in a focus group (n = 15). Finally, after appropriate refinements, its applicability was tested in 140 employed patients with rheumatoid arthritis recruited from a cohort in the United Kingdom. Multipliers relating the wage to marginal productivity were also derived using the questionnaire. Results: The final questionnaire includes items on employment status; absenteeism; presenteeism; unpaid work; and job characteristics, which includes questions on team dynamics, availability of substitutes and their substitutability, time sensitivity, and compensation mechanisms. The importance of incorporating these questions demonstrated that when one employee was absent, or present at work but unable to work at full capacity, the consequent output loss could exceed the output of the employee alone. Multipliers were shown to be greater than one and represented the excess output loss. Conclusions: The new questionnaire enabled the job and workplace characteristics to be captured so that the actual productivity loss at the societal level attributable to absenteeism and presenteeism could be valued.

Additional Metadata
Keywords absenteeism, job and workplace characteristics, presenteeism, productivity, wage multiplier
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2011.07.009, hdl.handle.net/1765/66766
Journal Value in Health
Citation
Zhang, W, Bansback, N, Boonen, A, Severens, J.L, & Anis, A.H. (2012). Development of a composite questionnaire, the valuation of lost productivity, to value productivity losses: Application in rheumatoid arthritis. Value in Health, 15(1), 46–54. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2011.07.009