Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses were slowed down when preceding color words mismatched the test color even if no task had to be performed on these words. These findings are consistent with the experiential view of language comprehension according to which color perception and the comprehension of color words are based on overlapping representational resources.

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Keywords Color, Embodied cognition, Experiential view, Language comprehension, Stroop effect
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Journal Cognition
Richter, T, & Zwaan, R.A. (2009). Processing of color words activates color representations. Cognition, 111(3), 383–389. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.02.011