Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore effects of (1) histological involvement of resection margins with microscopic residue, (2) incomplete removal of coccyx, and (3) tumor spillage on recurrence and on survival in children operated upon for sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT). Methods: Retrospective review of 70 patients treated between 1960 and 2003. Results: Fifty-four girls and 16 boys presented with SCT diagnosed prenatally (12), at birth (37), or later (21). Thirty-six percent of tumors were Altman type I, 27% type II, 18% type III, and 18% type IV. Histologically, mature teratoma was observed in 48 patients, immature teratoma in 11, yolk sac tumor (YST) in 9, embryonal carcinoma in one, and mixed tumor in one. Eighty-four percent of patients solely underwent surgical extirpation. Six (8.5%) patients died. However, mortality for the group of 42 patients treated during the past 15 years was as low as 2.5%. Tumor recurrence was observed in 5 patients, 2 of whom died. Of 3 patients with initially mature teratoma, 1 showed local immature recurrence and 2 malignant recurrences. One of the latter died. Of 2 patients with initially immature teratoma grade I, one relapsed with a benign lesion and one with YST leading to death. Possible eliciting factors had been demonstrated in 3 patients. Histological analysis of resection margins showed tumoral involvement in 11 patients (and also in one patient after resection of a recurrent tumor). Only one of those with YST focus in the resection margin showed recurrence. Intraoperative tumor spillage presented in 2 patients, who both died of metastatic disease. Spillage of tumoral cyst fluid occurred in 6, none developed recurrence. One of 5 patients whose coccyx had not been removed died of metastatic disease. One with immature teratoma developed a benign recurrent tumor. The other 3 showed no recurrence. Conclusions: Microscopic involvement of the resection margins of mature or immature SCT is rarely associated with recurrence, provided there are no YST foci in the resection margins. A conservative attitude then appears to be justified. Spillage of cyst fluid was never associated with recurrence, unlike spillage of tumor and absence of removal of coccyx.

Germ cell tumor, Recurrence, Sacrococcygeal teratoma
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.10.022, hdl.handle.net/1765/67018
Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Department of Pathology

de Backer, A, Madern, G.C, Hakvoort-Cammel, F.G.A.J, Haentjens, P, Oosterhuis, J.W, & Hazebroek, F.W.J. (2006). Study of the factors associated with recurrence in children with sacrococcygeal teratoma. Journal of Pediatric Surgery (Vol. 41, pp. 173–181). doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.10.022