This study examined cross-sectionally the association of dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E with peripheral arterial disease in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (1990--1993). The 4,367 subjects from the Rotterdam Study were aged 55--94 years and had no previous cardiovascular disease at baseline. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Peripheral arterial disease was defined as an ankle-arm systolic blood pressure index (AAI) of < or = 0.9 and was present in 204 men and 370 women. In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses, vitamin C intake was significantly inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease in women (highest vs. lowest quartile: relative risk = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 0.89; p(trend) = 0.006), and a 100-mg increase in intake was associated with a 0.013 AAI increase (95% CI: 0.001, 0.025). In men, vitamin E intake was inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease (relative risk = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.03; p(trend) = 0.067); a 10-mg increase in intake was associated with a 0.015 AAI increase (95% CI: 0.001, 0.031). Whether these differences in antioxidant intake and the risk of a low AAI and of peripheral arterial disease between sexes are attributable to a different food pattern for men compared with women remains to be elucidated.

Antioxidants, Arterial occlusive diseases, Ascorbic acid, Beta carotene, Cardiovascular diseases, Cross-sectional studies, Diet, Vitamin E
dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/154.2.145, hdl.handle.net/1765/67428
American Journal of Epidemiology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Klipstein-Grobusch, K, den Breeijen, J.H, Grobbee, D.E, Boeing, H, Hofman, A, & Witteman, J.C.M. (2001). Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: The Rotterdam study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(2), 145–149. doi:10.1093/aje/154.2.145