This study evaluated mid-dosing interval efavirenz plasma concentrations and the influence of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in relation to efficacy, tolerability, and adherence in 97 Rwandan HIV-infected children (3-16 years). Plasma drug concentrations and CYP2B6 polymorphisms were determined. Ten children were excluded for nonadherence. Large intersubject variability in efavirenz plasma concentrations was found. Of the 87 remaining, efavirenz concentrations were therapeutic, supratherapeutic, and subtherapeutic in 67%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. No associations were found between efavirenz concentrations and central nervous system disturbances or virologic failure. Minor allele frequencies were 0.32 (516G>T), 0.33 (785A>G), and 0.09 (983T>C). Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 were strongly associated with high efavirenz levels.

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Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Mutwa, P., Fillekes, Q., Malgaz, M., Tuyishimire, D., van de Kraats, R., Boer, K., … Geelen, S. (2012). Mid-dosing interval efavirenz plasma concentrations in HIV-1-infected children in Rwanda: Treatment efficacy, tolerability, adherence, and the influence of CYP2B6 polymorphisms. J A I D S, 60(4), 400–404. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182569f57