Background: There has been debate over how patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) can be safely selected for outpatient treatment. Objectives: To compare the Hestia criteria with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) criteria for selecting low-risk patients with PE for outpatient treatment. Methods: From 2008 to 2010, 496 patients with acute, symptomatic PE were screened and 275 treated at home and 221 treated in the hospital according to the Hestia Study protocol. The Hestia criteria were used to select patients for outpatient treatment. Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) diameters were measured on computed tomography images. RV dysfunction was defined as an RV/LV ratio > 1.0. Patients were classified according to the ESC criteria into low, intermediate and high-risk groups, based on blood pressure and RV dysfunction. During 3 months follow-up adverse events were scored. Results: Adverse events occurred in 22 patients (4.5%) treated in the hospital vs. none of the patients treated at home (P < 0.001). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for adverse outcome were 100% for the Hestia criteria and 96% and 99% for the ESC criteria, respectively. Of the patients treated at home according to the Hestia criteria, 35% were normotensive but had RV dysfunction and were classified as intermediate risk according to the ESC criteria. No adverse events happened in these patients treated at home. Conclusions: Clinical criteria, such as the Hestia criteria, could be helpful in selecting patients, including those with RV dysfunction who have a low risk of adverse clinical outcome and could be candidates for outpatient treatment.

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Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Department of Intensive Care