BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are to develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model that adequately describes the pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8 in HIV-1-infected children; to define factors involved in the pharmacokinetic variability, which could aid in defining dosing strategies; and to correlate the pharmacokinetics to the treatment response. METHODS: Protease inhibitor-naive, HIV-1-infected children were included. A population pharmacokinetic model of nelfinavir and M8 was developed using NONMEM. Bayesian analysis was used to estimate pharmacokinetic values. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was performed to study relationships between these values and the virologic response to therapy. RESULTS: From 38 children, 724 nelfinavir and 636 M8 plasma concentrations were available. The pharmacokinetics of both compounds were described simultaneously with a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. Clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) were 32.6 L/h (interindividual variability [IIV]: 31.6%) and 281 L/h (IIV: 29.7%) for nelfinavir and 86.2 L/h (IIV: 43.1%) and 42.3 L/h for M8. No factors could be defined that affected the pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir or M8. The overall virologic response was 78% (HIV-1 RNA <500 copies/mL, on-treatment analysis). No differences in exposure to nelfinavir and M8 were observed between responders and nonresponders. The only factor distinguishing the two groups was a higher baseline HIV-1 RNA concentration in nonresponders. CONCLUSION: A model was developed and validated that adequately described the population pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir and M8 in a childhood population. No factors affecting dosing strategies were identified, and no correlation could be demonstrated between the exposure to nelfinavir and M8 and the virologic treatment response. Copyright

HIV-1, M8, Nelfinavir, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics,
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Department of Pharmacy

Crommentuyn, K.M.L, Scherpbier, H.J, Kuijpers, T.W, Mathot, R.A, Huitema, A.D.R, & Beijnen, J.H. (2006). Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8 in HIV-1-infected children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 25(6), 538–543. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000215242.70300.95