Biomarkers of heart failure with normal ejection fraction: A systematic review
European Journal of Heart Failure , Volume 15 - Issue 12 p. 1350- 1362
Aims Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a major and growing public health problem, currently representing half of the heart failure burden. Although many studies have investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of new biomarkers in heart failure, limited data are available on biomarkers other than natriuretic peptides inHFNEF.We performed a systematic review of epidemiological studies on the associations of biomarkers with the occurrence of HFNEF and with the prognosis of HFNEF patients. Methods and results Biomarkers examined most extensively in HFNEF include biomarkers of myocyte stress, inflammation, and extracellular matrix remodelling. Some biomarkers have been shown to be increased to a different extent in HFNEF compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). Several biomarkers, including biomarkers of myocyte stress, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodelling, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), cystatin C, resistin, and galectin-3, were associated with development of HFNEF and with clinical outcomes of HFNEF patients in terms of morbidity and mortality. Conclusion Several biomarkers, including biomarkers of myocyte stress, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodelling, GDF-15, cystatin C, resistin, and galectin-3, appeared to be promising diagnostic and prognostic tools in patients with HFNEF. Investigation of the incremental diagnostic and prognostic value of these biomarkers, or a combination thereof, over established clinical covariates and imaging techniques in large, prospective studies is warranted.